HIV (“Human Immunodeficiency Virus”, human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a chronic infectious disease where the immune system is gradually suppressed by the effect of the active virus.
The virus (HIV), which is the cause of the disease, is a retrovirus belonging to the lentivirus family. Retroviruses are enveloped viruses containing single stranded RNA. It has the properties of converting genetic materials into double-stranded DNA and integrating it into the host chromosome via Reverse transcriptase enzyme.
There are specific glycoproteins on the surface of human lymphocytes that play a role in cell activity and function. Lymphocytes that carry CD4 cell surface antigen are cells that aid immunological reactions. CD4 + lymphocytes are also primary targets of HIV infection. During the course of HIV infection, the number of CD4 + T cells decreases gradually and characteristic opportunistic infections and cancers for AIDS occur.