Yayınlar

Prof. Dr. Vedat TURHAN 'ın Akademik Yazıları

Performance of the probe-to-bone test in a population suspected of having osteomyelitis of the foot in diabetes

Background: We investigated the validity of probe-to-bone testing in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in a selected subgroup of patients clinically suspected of having diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

Methods: Between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2008, inpatients and outpatients with a diabetic foot ulcer were prospectively evaluated, and those having a clinical diagnosis of foot infection and at least one of the osteomyelitis clinical suspicion criteria were consecutively included in this study.

Results: Sixty-five patients met the inclusion criteria and were prospectively enrolled in the study. Forty-nine patients (75.4%) were hospitalized, and the remaining 16 (24.6%) were followed as outpatients. Osteomyelitis was diagnosed in 39 patients (60.0%). Probe-to-bone test results were positive in 30 patients (46.1%). The positive predictive value for the probe-to-bone test was fairly high (87%), but the negative predictive value was only 62%. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 66% and 84%, respectively. White blood cell counts and mean C-reactive protein levels did not statistically significantly differ between groups. However, erythrocyte sedimentation rates greater than 70 mm/h reached statistical significance between groups. Wound area and depth were not found to be statistically significantly different between groups.

Conclusions: Positive probe-to-bone test results and erythrocyte sedimentation rates greater than 70 mm/h provide some support for the diagnosis of diabetic foot osteomyelitis, but it is not strong; magnetic resonance imaging or bone biopsy will probably be required in cases of doubt. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(5): 369–373, 2012)

Mortality indicators in pneumococcal meningitis: therapeutic implications

SUMMARY
Background
The aim of this study was to delineate mortality indicators in pneumococcal meningitis with special emphasis on therapeutic implications.

Methods
This retrospective, multicenter cohort study involved a 15-year period (1998–2012). Culture-positive cases (n = 306) were included solely from 38 centers.

Results
Fifty-eight patients received ceftriaxone plus vancomycin empirically. The rest were given a third-generation cephalosporin alone. Overall, 246 (79.1%) isolates were found to be penicillin-susceptible, 38 (12.2%) strains were penicillin-resistant, and 22 (7.1%) were oxacillin-resistant (without further minimum inhibitory concentration testing for penicillin). Being a critical case (odds ratio (OR) 7.089, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.230–15.557) and age over 50 years (OR 3.908, 95% CI 1.820–8.390) were independent predictors of mortality, while infection with a penicillin-susceptible isolate (OR 0.441, 95% CI 0.195–0.996) was found to be protective. Empirical vancomycin use did not provide significant benefit (OR 2.159, 95% CI 0.949–4.912).

Conclusions
Ceftriaxone alone is not adequate in the management of pneumococcal meningitis due to penicillin-resistant pneumococci, which is a major concern worldwide. Although vancomycin showed a trend towards improving the prognosis of pneumococcal meningitis, significant correlation in statistical terms could not be established in this study. Thus, further studies are needed for the optimization of pneumococcal meningitis treatment.

KEYWORDS
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Meningitis
Mortality
Penicillin
Resistance
Vancomycin

Can procalcitonin predict bone infection in people with diabetes with infected foot ulcers? A pilot study

Aims
The diagnosis of osteomyelitis is a key step of diabetic foot management. Previous studies showed that procalcitonin (PCT), a novel infection marker, is superior to conventional infection markers in the diagnosis of diabetic foot infection. This study aimed to investigate the serum levels of PCT and other conventional infection markers in diabetic persons with and without osteomyelitis.

Methods
Twenty-four patients (18 male, mean age: 61.9 ± 10.8 years) with infected foot ulcers were prospectively enrolled. Clinical characteristics of the wounds were noted. Blood samples were obtained for biochemical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the foot was performed in all patients to diagnose osteomyelitis.

Results
Osteomyelitis was found in 13 of 24 (54%) patients. PCT levels were 66.7 ± 43.5 pg/ml in patients with osteomyelitis and 58.6 ± 35.5 pg/ml in patients without osteomyelitis. The difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.627). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, but not C-reactive protein and white blood cell count, was found significantly higher in patients with osteomyelitis.

Conclusion
In this group of patients, PCT failed to discriminate patients with bone infection. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate can be used as a marker of osteomyelitis in diabetic persons.

KEYWORDS
Diabetic foot
Infection marker
Bone infection
Diagnostic accuracy

Hyperbaric oxygen as adjunctive therapy in experimental mediastinitis

Background
Mediastinitis is a dreaded complication of cardiac surgical procedures. The purpose of our study was to research the role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) in the treatment of experimental mediastinitis and to investigate whether it potentiates the antibiotic effects of linezolid, teicoplanin, and vancomycin.

Methods
The study included nine groups; an uncontaminated and a contaminated untreated control groups, and seven contaminated groups that received HBO or systemic antibiotics with linezolid, vancomycin, or teicoplanin, or a combination therapy consisting of one of these antibiotics and HBO. There were six adult male Wistar rats in each group. Contaminated groups were inoculated with 0.5 mL 108 CFU/mL methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureusin the mediastinal and in the sternal layers. The antibiotic treatment continued 7 d. Twelve hours later at the end of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed, a sternotomy was performed for each rat and tissue samples from the upper ends of the sternum were aseptically obtained and evaluated microbiologically.

Results
There was no difference between the therapeutic efficacy of linezolid, teicoplanin, or vancomycin (P > 0.05). When the groups were analyzed separately, treatment with a combination of HBO and antibiotic therapy reduced the bacterial count in comparison with HBO or antibiotic treatment alone (P < 0.05). The combination of teicoplanin or vancomycin and HBO, respectively, was not more effective in reducing the bacterial count in comparison with the combination of linezolid and HBO (P > 0.05).

Conclusions
Linezolid and teicoplanin therapy was found as effective as standard vancomycin therapy for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) mediastinitis. Adjunctive HBO offered additional benefit to the antibiotic treatment of mediastinitis.

KEY WORDS
mediastinitis
hyperbaric oxygen therapy
linezolid
teicoplanin
vancomycin

Cerebral venous thrombosis as a complication of leptospirosis

SUMMARY
Leptospirosis is an acute infectious disease caused by a spirochete of the leptospira gender and it is characterized by severe vasculitis. It is not common for leptospirosis to present as a primary neurological disease. On the other hand, no study has been reported on the progression of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in patients with leptospirosis so far. This is the first case reported which shows CVT as a complication after the leptospirosis infection. An acutely developed leptospirosis and post-infectious CVT in a 21-year-old soldier is described here.

KEYWORDS
Leptospirosis
Complications
Cerebral venous thrombosis
Neuroleptospirosis

Leptospirosis in Istanbul, Turkey: a wide spectrum in clinical course and complications

Patients with high fever and multiorgan involvement were investigated for the determination of frequency, clinical course and complications of leptospirosis in Istanbul. Leptospirosis was determined in 22 cases among the 35 hospitalized patients that were prediagnosed as leptospirosis according to ‘Probable Leptospirosis Diagnosis and Follow-up’ form. Among the leptospirosis cases 19 were male and 16 were military staff. Mean age was 35.6 y. Dark field examination (DFE), latex agglutination test (LAG), ELISA IgM, leptospirosis culture (LC) and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) were performed to confirm the diagnoses. The most frequent initial symptoms and findings were fever, fatigue, headache, nausea-vomiting and increased muscle sensitivity. Jaundice was noted only in 2 cases. A 74-y-old female patient died after the recurrence of the disease with severe rhabdomyolysis and pulmonary failure. Sagittal sinus thrombosis, perimyocarditis and chronic renal failure were major complications in another 3 patients. ELISA IgM, LC, DFE, LAG and MAT tests were positive in 68, 72, 82, 100 and 100% of the patients, respectively. As a conclusion, diagnosis of leptospirosis is usually overlooked. Clinical awareness, use of probable leptospirosis diagnosis forms and the application of different laboratory methods in the diagnosis of suspected cases may offer the chance to diagnose the leptospirosis accurately.

Increasing incidence of Gram-negative organisms in bacterial agents isolated from diabetic foot ulcers

Introduction: In the present study, we sought to identify the bacterial organisms associated with diabetic foot infections (DFIs) and their antibiotic sensitivity profiles.

Methodology: We retrospectively reviewed the records of wound cultures collected from diabetic patients with foot infections between May 2005 and July 2010.

Results: We identified a total of 298 culture specimens (165 [55%] wound swab, 108 [36%] tissue samples, and 25 [9%] bone samples) from 107 patients (74 [69%] males and 33 [31%] females, mean age 62 ± 13 yr) with a DFI. Among all cultures 83.5% (223/267) were monomicrobial and 16.4% (44/267) were polymicrobial. Gram-negative bacterial isolates (n = 191; 61.3%) significantly outnumbered Gram-positive isolates (n = 121; 38.7%). The most frequently isolated bacteria were Pseudomonas species (29.8%), Staphylococcus aureus(16.7%), Enterococcus species (11.5%), Escherichia coli (7.1%), and Enterobacter species (7.1%), respectively. While 13.2% of the Gram-negative isolates were inducible beta-lactamase positive, 44.2% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were methicillin resistant.

Conclusions: Our results support the recent view that Gram-negative organisms, depending on the geographical location, may predominate in DFIs.

Hantavirus infection in İstanbul, Turkey

To the Editor: More than 20 serotypes of hantavirus have been identified, and 11 infect humans. Puumala virus (PUUV), Dobrava virus (DOBV), and Seoul virus cause different forms of hemorrhagic renal syndrome (1,2). DOBV is endemic to Turkey and countries in the Balkan region. Approximately 10,000–12,000 cases of infection with PUUV and DOBV occur in European Russia each year (3). Initial case reports identified a hantavirus epidemic (laboratory confirmed) in February 2009 that involved 12 persons in Bartin and Zonguldak in western Turkey near the Black Sea. The hantavirus responsible for this epidemic was a PUUV subtype (4). We report a man infected with DOBV in Turkey who died 2 days after admission to an intensive care unit (ICU).

The patient was a 22-year-old man who lived near Istanbul, Turkey. He was admitted to the Silivri State Hospital in March 2010 because of fatigue, diffuse pain, nausea, and vomiting. Approximately 2 hours after admission, ecchymotic rashes developed on his upper extremities and spread to other areas. His general condition worsened, and 15 hours later, he was transferred to the ICU of the Emergency Service of Gulhane Military Medical Academy Haydarpasa Training Hospital. His medical history did not include exposure to rodents or any travel.

At admission to the ICU, his general condition was poor, and his speech was garbled and incoherent. He had a body temperature of 37.2°C, a pulse of 140 beats/min, an arterial blood pressure of 90/60 mm Hg, diffuse hemorrhagic foci, and a disseminated ecchymotic rash. Laboratory test results showed the following: 13,200 leukocytes/mm3, 92% polymorphonuclear leukocytes, hemoglobin 11.6 mg/dL, 385,000 platelets/mm3, alanine aminotransferase 62 IU/mL, aspartate aminotransferase 170 IU/mL, creatine phosphokinase 2,115 IU/L, lactate dehydrogenase 1,109 IU/L, urea 65 mg/dL, creatinine 3.78 mg/dL, prothrobin time 24.8 s, activated partial thromboplastin time 116.3 s, potassium 2.9 mEq/L, C-reactive protein 326 mg/dL, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate 132 mm/h.

Subsequently, urinary output decreased and respiratory functions worsened. He then lost consciousness and was subjected to mechanic ventilation. Lumbar puncture was not performed because of risk for bleeding (high international normalized ratio values for blood coagulation and thrombocytopenia). Cranial computed tomographic scan did not show any pathologic changes. Treatment with ceftriaxone, 4 g/day intravenously, was initiated, and the dose was adjusted according to creatinine clearance because of suspected meningococcemia. A single dose of prednisolone, 80 mg intravenously, was given concomitantly. Bacterial growth was not observed in cultures of urine and blood samples.

The Hanta Profile 1 EUROLINE Test (Euroimmun, Luebeck, Germany) was used to detect immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM against 3 hantavirus serotypes (PUUV, DOBV, and Hantaan virus). Results of a hantavirus IgM immunoblot test were positive for DOBV. The QIAamp viral RNA Mini Extraction Kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) was used for extraction of viral RNA. PUUV and DOBV RNA in serum and urine samples were investigated by using an in-house real-time PCR (Rotorgene; QIAGEN). DOBV RNA was detected in urine samples by PCR (Table).

Clinical usefulness of mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution width to platelet ratio for predicting the severity of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B virus patients

Objective: Hepatitis B virus infection is still one of the leading causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Liver biopsy is the gold-standard method to assess the severity of liver fibrosis, but the invasive nature of this method limits its usage. Currently, noninvasive parameters are utilized to estimate liver histology. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the severity of fibrosis and red blood cell distribution width (RDW), platelet distribution width (PDW), mean platelet volume (MPV), and MPV and red blood cell distribution width to platelet ratio (RPR) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).

Design: A total of 229 biopsy-proven naïve CHB cases were included in the study. The complete blood count variables including white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit value, platelet count, RDW, MPV and PDW, as well as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin, and other routine biochemical parameters were tested. Liver biopsy samples were examined using the Ishak scoring system. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS 15 software. Statistical significance was set at a P-value of less than 0.05.

Results: Of the 229 cases, 210 (91.7%) were men and 19 (8.3%) were women. The mean age of the patients was 30.9 years, and 85 cases (37.1%) had HBeAg positivity. Fibrosis scores of 41 cases (17.9%) were greater than or equal to 3, whereas 188 cases (82.1%) had fibrosis scores less than 3. There was a significant difference between these two groups for MPV (group 1=7.98±1.20, group 2=8.77±1.44, P<0.05). There was also a significant difference between these two groups for RDW (P<0.05). The RDW value in group 1 patients was 11.83±0.89, whereas this value was 12.57±1.32 in group 2. Moreover, the RPR was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between the groups for PDW. We have compared the receiver operating characteristic curves for the diagnostic performance of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, platelet count, RDW, MPV, and RPR in identifying fibrosis in CHB and area under the curve values for these variables were 0.666, 0.463, 0.657, 0.672, 0.677, and 0.758, respectively.

Conclusion: MPV and RDW values are significantly higher in hepatitis B virus-infected patients, associated with severity, and can be defined as independent predicting factors in hepatic fibrosis. Further studies are required to determine the associations between MPV and the severity of fibrosis in hepatitis B patients.

How reliable are cultures of specimens from superficial swabs compared with those of deep tissue in patients with diabetic foot ulcers?

ABSTRACT
Purpose
To assess the reliability of cultures of superficial swabs (SS) by comparing them with cultures of concomitantly obtained deep tissue (DT) specimens in patients with diabetic foot ulcers.

Methods
We reviewed clinical and microbiological data from patients with diabetes who presented during a two-year period to our hyperbaric medicine center with a foot ulcer. We identified patients who had at least one concomitantly collected SS and DT pair of specimens sent for culture.

Results
A total of 89 culture pairs were available from 54 eligible patients, 33 (61.1%) of whom were hospitalized. Wounds were infected in 47 (87.0%) of the patients and 28 (51.9%) patients had received antibiotic therapy within the previous month. Overall, 65 (73%) of the SS and DT pairs had identical culture results, but in 11 (16.9%) cases the cultures were sterile; thus, only 54 (69.2%) of the 78 culture-positive pairs had identical results. Compared with DT, SS cultures yielded ≥ 1 extra organism in 10 (11.2%) cases, missed at least one organism in 8 (9.0%), and were completely different in 6 (6.7%). When compared to DT culture results, SS cultures had a positive predictive value of 84.4%, negative predictive value of 44.0%, and overall accuracy of 73.0%.

Conclusions
In patients with diabetic foot ulcers, results of specimens for culture taken by SS did not correlate well with those obtained by DT. This suggests that SS specimens may be less reliable for guiding antimicrobial therapy than DT specimens.

KEYWORDS
Diabetic foot ulcer
Swab culture
Tissue biopsy
Wound microbiology

Microorganisms isolated from middle ear cultures and their antibacterial susceptibility in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine causative microorganisms of chronic suppurative otitis media and their antibacterial susceptibility.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bacteriologic results of middle ear swabs, agent microorganisms, and their susceptibility to antibiotics were evaluated in 70 patients (65 males, 5 females; mean age 21.1+/-1.3 years; range 19 to 25 years) with chronic suppurative otitis media. RESULTS: No bacteria were isolated in 14% of the patients. Of 60 patients in whom bacteria were isolated, the most common bacteria was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (18%), and Proteus spp. (17%). P. aeruginosa strains were susceptible to ceftazidime and imipenem (100%), ciprofloxacin (92%), and amikacin and gentamycin (85%); S. aureus strains were susceptible to methicillin and vancomycin (100%), ciprofloxacin (91%), sulbactam-ampicillin (73%), and gentamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (63%). Proteus strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (100%), ceftazidime (90%), and imipenem and gentamycin (70%). CONCLUSION: Appropriate knowledge of antibacterial susceptibility of microorganisms will contribute to rational antibiotic usage and the success of treatment for chronic suppurative otitis media.

Update on treatment options for spinal brucellosis

ABSTRACT
We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of antibiotic regimens and optimal duration of therapy in complicated and uncomplicated forms of spinal brucellosis. This is a multicentre, retrospective and comparative study involving a total of 293 patients with spinal brucellosis from 19 health institutions. Comparison of complicated and uncomplicated spinal brucellosis was statistically analysed. Complicated spinal brucellosis was diagnosed in 78 (26.6%) of our patients. Clinical presentation was found to be significantly more acute, with fever and weight loss, in patients in the complicated group. They had significantly higher leukocyte and platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and C-reactive protein levels, and lower haemoglobulin levels. The involvement of the thoracic spine was significantly more frequent in complicated cases. Spondylodiscitis was complicated, with paravertebral abscess in 38 (13.0%), prevertebral abscess in 13 (4.4%), epidural abscess in 30 (10.2%), psoas abscess in 10 (3.4%) and radiculitis in 8 (2.7%) patients. The five major combination regimens were: doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and streptomycin 1 g/day; doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and gentamicin 5 mg/kg; doxycycline 200 mg/day and rifampicin 600 mg/day; doxycycline 200 mg/day and streptomycin 1 g/day; and doxycycline 200 mg/day, rifampicin 600 mg/day and ciprofloxacin 1 g/day. There were no significant therapeutic differences between these antibiotic groups; the results were similar regarding the complicated and uncomplicated groups. Patients were mostly treated with doxycycline and rifampicin with or without an aminoglycoside. In the former subgroup, complicated cases received antibiotics for a longer duration than uncomplicated cases. Early recognition of complicated cases is critical in preventing devastating complications. Antimicrobial treatment should be prolonged in complicated spinal brucellosis in particular.

KEYWORDS
Brucellosis
spondylitis
spondylodiscitis
treatment

Biological screening of various medicinal plant extracts for antibacterial and antitumor activities

Abstract: Bioassays of 2 types (antibacterial and antitumor) were performed to show the biological activities of 16 different plants grown in Bolu, Turkey: Clinopodium vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L., Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca (Frey & Bornm.) Bornm., Salvia tomentosa Mill., Mentha pulegium L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) Desr., Melilotus alba Desr., Medicago lupulina L., Galega officinalis L., Xeranthemum annuum L., Cichorium intybus L., Plantago lanceolata L., Plantago major L. subsp. major, Fumaria officinalis L., Galium palustre L., Echium vulgare L., and Sambucus nigra L. For each plant, 3 different extracts (aqueous, ethanol, and methanol) were obtained, and a total of 48 extracts were evaluated. Antibacterial activity was evaluated with 10 bacteria, including Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia marcescens, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae by disk diffusion method. All plants except M. alba, M. lupulina, X. annuum, G. palustre, and S. nigra showed inhibitory activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The best inhibitory activity was observed with aqueous extract of M. officinalis (22.5 mm); it performed better than all positive controls (erythromycin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol; 7-20 mm) against P. aeruginosa. Antitumor activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced potato disk tumor assay. The best antitumor activity was obtained with the methanolic extract of M. alba and aqueous extract of F. officinalis (100% tumor inhibition).

Keywords: Bioassays, antibacterial, antitumor, biological activity, medicinal plants

The implications of the presence of osteomyelitis on outcomes of infected diabetic foot wounds

Aim: To assess the effect of the presence of osteomyelitis in patients with a diabetic foot infection. Methods: We reviewed the records of diabetic patients hospitalized at our medical center for a foot infection over a 2-y period. Using clinical, imaging, and microbiology results, we classified each patient as having diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) or not. We then compared several outcome criteria of interest between the 2 groups. Results: Among 73 eligible patients, 37 were in the DFO group (DFO group), while the other 36 were in the soft tissue infection group (STI group). In comparison to the STI group, the DFO group had a significantly longer length of stay (LOS) in the hospital (42 (28.5–51) days vs 19.5 (13.2–29.5) days, p < 0.001), longer duration of antibiotic therapy (46.6 ± 19.9 days vs 22.0 ± 14.6 days, p < 0.001), longer duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy (32.3 ± 16.3 days vs 13.6 ± 14.3 days, p < 0.001), longer duration of wound before admission (44 (31–64.5) days vs 33 (23–45.5) days, p = 0.034), and longer time to wound healing (239.8 ± 108.2 days vs 183.1 ± 73 days, p = 0.011). There were more surgical procedures in the DFO group than in the STI group (24/37 (64.8%) vs 11/36 (30.5%), p = 0.003), and during hospitalization, 22 patients in the DFO group and 5 patients in STI group underwent minor amputation (59.4% vs 13.8%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The presence of osteomyelitis negatively affects both the treatment and outcome of diabetic foot infections.

Nosocomial infection characteristics in a burn intensive care unit: analysis of an eleven-year active surveillance

Aims
The objective of this study was to describe nosocomial infection (NI) rates, risk factors, etiologic agents, antibiotic susceptibility, invasive device utilization and invasive device associated infection rates in a burn intensive care unit (ICU) in Turkey.

Methods
Prospective surveillance of nosocomial infections was performed according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria between 2001 and 2012. The data was analyzed retrospectively.

Results
During the study period 658 burn patients were admitted to our burn ICU. 469 cases acquired 602 NI for an overall NI rate of 23.1 per 1000 patient days. 109 of all the cases (16.5%) died. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (241), Acinetobacter baumannii (186) and Staphylococcus aureus (69) were the most common identified bacteria in 547 strains.

Conclusion
Total burn surface area, full thickness burn, older age, presence of inhalation injury were determined to be the significant risk factors for acquisition of NI. Determining the NI profile at a certain burn ICU can lead the medical staff apply the appropriate treatment regimen and limit the drug resistance. Eleven years surveillance report presented here provides a recent data about the risk factors of NI in a Turkish burn ICU.

KEYWORDS
Burn intensive care unit
Nosocomial infection
Surveillance
Invasive device associated infection

The frequency and affecting factors of smoking among the high school teachers in Konya

This study was carried out to describe the prevalence of smoking and analyze the affecting factors on smoking among the high school teachers. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed among 213 high school teachers working at 6 high schools selected among 37 high schools in Konya randomly between 20 February 2006-30 May 2006. Of 213 high school teachers who participated in the study, 152 (71.4%) were men, 61 (28.6%) were women, the lowest age was 22, the highest age was 60 and the mean age was 41,45±&59;8,20. The prevalence of current smokers was &91; (every day smokers 38.0% (n&61;81) plus occasional smokers 4.7% (n&61;10)&93; 42.7% (n&61;91), former smokers 21.6% (n&61;46), never smokers 35.7% (n&61;76), quit ratio &91;quit ratio is defined as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers (current and former smokers)&93; was 33.6%, respectively. The lowest age at starting smoking was 10, the highest age was 40 and the median age was 18 years old. The median value of Fagerstrom dependence was 3 and 73.7% (n&61;67) was placed at a low and very low addiction degree. When the correlation between smoking behavior and socio-demographic characteristics was investigated, being 15-19 aged was statistically regarded as important to start smoking (X2&61;47.8, p&60;0.001). There was no significant correlation between quitting smoking behavior, gender, age and occupational branch statistically (p&62;0.05). There was a smoking room (96.4%) for teachers in the high schools who participated in the research. However, this restriction was obeyed by the rate of 57.4%, and it was sometimes (62.8%) possible that somebody could see the smoker teachers in the corridors of the school. Of the smokers, 65.3% smoked in their houses and 90.6% stated that smoking adversely affected their children. &91;TAF Prev Med Bull 2007&59; 6(4.000)&58; 273-278&93;

Efficacy and tolerability of antibiotic combinations in neurobrucellosis: results of the İstanbul study

No data on whether brucellar meningitis or meningoencephalitis can be treated with oral antibiotics or whether an intravenous extended-spectrum cephalosporin, namely, ceftriaxone, which does not accumulate in phagocytes, should be added to the regimen exist in the literature. The aim of a study conducted in Istanbul, Turkey, was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of ceftriaxone-based antibiotic treatment regimens with those of an oral treatment protocol in patients with these conditions. This retrospective study enrolled 215 adult patients in 28 health care institutions from four different countries. The first protocol (P1) comprised ceftriaxone, rifampin, and doxycycline. The second protocol (P2) consisted of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, rifampin, and doxycycline. In the third protocol (P3), the patients started with P1 and transferred to P2 when ceftriaxone was stopped. The treatment period was shorter with the regimens which included ceftriaxone (4.40 ± 2.47 months in P1, 6.52 ± 4.15 months in P2, and 5.18 ± 2.27 months in P3) (P = 0.002). In seven patients, therapy was modified due to antibiotic side effects. When these cases were excluded, therapeutic failure did not differ significantly between ceftriaxone-based regimens (n = 5/166, 3.0%) and the oral therapy (n = 4/42, 9.5%) (P = 0.084). The efficacy of the ceftriaxone-based regimens was found to be better (n = 6/166 [3.6%] versus n = 6/42 [14.3%]; P = 0.017) when a composite negative outcome (CNO; relapse plus therapeutic failure) was considered. Accordingly, CNO was greatest in P2 (14.3%, n = 6/42) compared to P1 (2.6%, n = 3/117) and P3 (6.1%, n = 3/49) (P= 0.020). Seemingly, ceftriaxone-based regimens are more successful and require shorter therapy than the oral treatment protocol.

Procalciitonin as a diagnostic aid in diabetic foot infections

The diagnosis of diabetic foot infection (DFI) is usually a challenge to the clinician. Procalcitonin (PCT), a 116-amino acid propeptide of calcitonin, is a new marker of bacterial infections and sepsis. We evaluated the serum value of PCT as a marker of bacterial infection in diabetic patients with foot ulcers. Forty-nine diabetic patients with foot ulcers were consecutively enrolled into the study. DFI was diagnosed clinically by the presence of purulent secretions or at least two of the symptoms of inflammation including redness, warmth, swelling, and pain. According to these criteria, DFI was determined in 27 patients (DFI group) and not detected in 22 patients (NDFI group). The blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis on admission. PCT, white blood cell count (WBC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), but not C-reactive protein (CRP), was found significantly higher in DFI group compared with NDFI group. The best cut-off value, sensitivity and specificity were 0.08 ng/ml, 77% and 100% for PCT, 32.1 mg/dl, 29% and 100% for CRP, 8.6 109/L, 70% and 72% for WBC and 40.5 mm/h, 77% and 77% for ESR, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for infection identification was greatest for PCT (0.859; p < 0.001), followed by WBC (0.785; p = 0.001), ESR (0.752; p = 0.003), and finally CRP (0.625; p = 0.137). These results suggest that PCT may be a useful diagnostic marker for DFI. Additional research is needed to better define the role of PCT in DFI.

Comparison of colistin–carbapenem, colistin–sulbactam, and colistin plus other antibacterial agents for the treatment of extremely drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumanni bloodstream infections

The purpose of this investigation was to compare the efficacy of colistin-based therapies in extremely drug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream infections (XDR-ABSI). A retrospective study was conducted in 27 tertiary-care centers from January 2009 to August 2012. The primary end-point was 14-day survival, and the secondary end-points were clinical and microbiological outcomes. Thirty-six and 214 patients [102 (47.7 %): colistin–carbapenem (CC), 69 (32.2 %): colistin–sulbactam (CS), and 43 (20.1 %: tigecycline): colistin with other agent (CO)] received colistin monotherapy and colistin-based combinations, respectively. Rates of complete response/cure and 14-day survival were relatively higher, and microbiological eradication was significantly higher in the combination group. Also, the in-hospital mortality rate was significantly lower in the combination group. No significant difference was found in the clinical (p = 0.97) and microbiological (p = 0.92) outcomes and 14-day survival rates (p = 0.79) between the three combination groups. Neither the timing of initial effective treatment nor the presence of any concomitant infection was significant between the three groups (p > 0.05) and also for 14-day survival (p > 0.05). Higher Pitt bacteremia score (PBS), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), and prolonged hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay before XDR-ABSI were significant risk factors for 14-day mortality (p = 0.02, p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001, p = 0.02, and p = 0.01, respectively). In the multivariable analysis, PBS, age, and duration of ICU stay were independent risk factors for 14-day mortality (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.001, respectively). Colistin-based combination therapy resulted in significantly higher microbiological eradication rates, relatively higher cure and 14-day survival rates, and lower in-hospital mortality compared to colistin monotherapy. CC, CS, and CO combinations for XDR-ABSI did not reveal significant differences with respect to 14-day survival and clinical or microbiological outcome before and after propensity score matching (PSM). PBS, age, and length of ICU stay were independent risk factors for 14-day mortality.

This study was presented orally at the 23rd European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease (ECCMID), 30th April 2013, Berlin, Germany.